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Nephrolithiasis in a portuguese pediatric population

Joana V. Andrade1,2, Sofia Bota2, Telma Francisco2, Raquel Santos2, Gisela Neto2, Margarida Abranches2

1 - Centro Hospitalar Tondela‑Viseu, EPE, Viseu, Portugal
2 - Pediatric Nephrology Unit, Hospital de Dona Estefânia, Centro Hospitalar de Lisboa Central, Lisbon, Portugal

- Port J Nephrol Hypert 2018; 32(3): 258-267 (artigo).

Introduction and Aims: Nephrolithiasis incidence in children has increased considerably. It is associated with substantial morbidity, recurrence and increased adulthood cardiovascular risk and chronic kidney disease. A thorough investigation is essential, as rare forms of urolithiasis have increased risk of renal failure. We aim to determine the epidemiology and outcomes of a pediatric population with nephrolithiasis presented in a nephrology unit of a tertiary centre.
Methods: Retrospective study of the records of all children (<18 years) with nephrolithiasis diagnosis between 2008‑17. Clinical features, etiology, recurrence, treatment, and outcomes were evaluated and compared throughout the study period through two equal periods (2008‑12 versus 2013‑17).
Results: We identified 80 cases: isolated nephrolithiasis (86%) and associated with nephrocalcinosis (14%). Mean follow‑up was 36 months (14–120). Median age at presentation was 8.6 years [3 months – 17 years]: 21% < 2 years‑old and 46% ≥ 10 years. The annual ratio of referrals for nephrolithiasis increased on average 1.2% per year [0.3‑11.8%]. Multiple etiological factors were present in 34%. A metabolic abnormality was identified in 54%: hypocitraturia (34%), hypercalcuria (24%), hyperoxaluria (15%), hyperuricosuria (15%) and cystinuria (1%), without age predominance (p=0.2). Urinary tract infection (24%) was the next most significant etiology and was more frequent below 2 years of age (p=0.001) and associated with struvite calculi (p=0.033). Median age at diagnosis was significantly lower in the study’s first half (5 vs 10 years; p=0.019) and an infectious etiology was more frequent (p=0.043). In a logistic‑regression analysis, a family history of nephrolithiasis was associated with a metabolic cause (p<0.01). Sixty‑three percent became stone free and 24% had recurrence.
Discussion: Nephrolithiasis new referrals gradually increased throughout the study period. The most common etiology was metabolic, which is usually responsible for nephrolithiasis appearance and its recurrence, emphasizing the need for a complete evaluation.

Palavras Chave: nephrolithiasis, kidney stone, children, Portuguese, metabolic disease, obesity.